AGI and MTheory: A Theoretical Exploration of the Possibility of Artificial Intelligence with Quantum Gravity
Nov. 2023
Massachusetts Institute of Mathematics
Introduction
Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is a hypothetical type of artificial intelligence (AI) that can perform any intellectual task that a human or an animal can do. AGI is also known as strong AI, full AI, or humanlevel AI, and it is contrasted with weak AI or narrow AI, which can only solve specific problems within a limited domain. AGI is one of the ultimate goals of some AI research and development projects, such as OpenAI, DeepMind, and Anthropic. However, AGI is still a theoretical concept, and there is no consensus among researchers on how to define, measure, or achieve it. MTheory is a theoretical framework in physics that attempts to unify all the fundamental forces of nature, including gravity, in a consistent quantum theory. MTheory is a generalization of string theory, which posits that the elementary particles and fields are not pointlike, but extended onedimensional objects called strings. MTheory extends this idea to higherdimensional objects called branes, which can have various shapes and dimensions. MTheory is also known as the theory of everything, and it is considered to be the most promising candidate for a quantum theory of gravity. The main question that this article aims to explore is whether AGI and MTheory are compatible or incompatible, and what implications this has for the possibility of creating and understanding artificial intelligence with quantum gravity. To answer this question, we will first review some of the main features and challenges of AGI and MTheory, and then discuss some of the possible connections between them.
Features and Challenges of AGI
As mentioned above, AGI is a type of AI that can perform any intellectual task that a human or an animal can do. This implies that AGI should have some of the following characteristics:
 Generalization: AGI should be able to apply its knowledge and skills to a variety of domains and contexts, and not be limited by specific tasks or scenarios.
 Learning: AGI should be able to acquire new knowledge and skills from data, experience, feedback, or instruction, and improve its performance over time.
 Reasoning: AGI should be able to infer, deduce, or induce logical conclusions from facts, rules, or principles, and solve problems that require complex or abstract thinking.
 Creativity: AGI should be able to generate novel, original, or useful ideas, products, or solutions, and exhibit imagination, innovation, or artistry.
 Selfawareness: AGI should be able to recognize, monitor, and control its own mental states, processes, and actions, and have a sense of identity, agency, and purpose.
 Sociality: AGI should be able to communicate, cooperate, or compete with other agents, human or artificial, and understand and respond to their emotions, intentions, and norms.
However, achieving these characteristics is not easy, and there are many challenges and open problems that hinder the development of AGI. Some of these challenges are:
 Representation: How to represent knowledge, concepts, and meanings in a way that is understandable, manipulable, and scalable for AGI.
 Integration: How to integrate different types of knowledge, skills, and modalities, such as perception, language, memory, logic, and action, in a coherent and consistent way for AGI.
 Generalization: How to enable AGI to transfer its learning and reasoning across domains and contexts, and avoid overfitting or underfitting to specific data or situations.  Adaptation: How to enable AGI to adapt to changing environments, goals, or preferences, and cope with uncertainty, noise, or ambiguity.
 Evaluation: How to measure and compare the performance, intelligence, or behavior of AGI, and define appropriate metrics, benchmarks, or tests.
 Ethics: How to ensure that AGI is aligned with human values, morals, and laws, and does not cause harm, injustice, or conflict.
Features and Challenges of MTheory
As mentioned above, MTheory is a theoretical framework in physics that attempts to unify all the fundamental forces of nature, including gravity, in a consistent quantum theory. This implies that MTheory should have some of the following features:
 Quantum: MTheory should be able to describe the behavior of matter and energy at the smallest scales, where quantum effects dominate, and account for phenomena such as superposition, entanglement, or uncertainty.
 Relativistic: MTheory should be able to describe the behavior of matter and energy at the largest scales, where relativistic effects dominate, and account for phenomena such as gravity, curvature, or time dilation.
 Unified: MTheory should be able to describe the behavior of matter and energy at all scales, and explain how the four fundamental forces of nature, namely electromagnetism, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and gravity, are related or derived from a single principle or entity.
 Elegant: MTheory should be able to describe the behavior of matter and energy in a simple, concise, and beautiful way, and reveal some of the symmetries, patterns, or structures of nature.
However, achieving these features is not easy, and there are many challenges and open problems that hinder the development of MTheory. Some of these challenges are:
 Experimentation: How to test and verify the predictions of MTheory, given the limitations of current or feasible technology, and the extreme conditions required to observe some of the phenomena involved.
 Mathematics: How to formulate and solve the equations of MTheory, given the complexity and difficulty of the mathematical tools and methods required, and the lack of a complete or consistent formulation of the theory.
 Interpretation: How to understand and explain the physical meaning and implications of MTheory, given the abstractness and strangeness of some of the concepts and entities involved, such as extra dimensions, branes, or dualities.
 Uniqueness: .How to determine and justify the validity and necessity of MTheory, given the possibility of alternative or competing theories that could also explain the same or similar phenomena.
 Falsifiability: How to distinguish and reject the false or incorrect aspects of MTheory, given the lack of empirical evidence or logical contradiction that could refute or challenge the theory.
Connections between AGI and MTheory
Connections between AGI and MTheory Given the features of AGI and MTheory, we can now explore some of the possible connections between them, and what implications this has for the possibility of creating and understanding artificial intelligence with quantum gravity. We will consider three aspects: the role of AGI in MTheory, the role of MTheory in AGI, and the compatibility of AGI and MTheory.
The Role of AGI in MTheory
One possible connection between AGI and MTheory is that AGI could play a role in the development and advancement of MTheory, by helping to overcome some of the challenges and open problems that MTheory faces. For example, AGI could:
 Assist in the design and execution of experiments that could test and verify the predictions of MTheory, by optimizing the parameters, conditions, and outcomes of the experiments, and analyzing the data and results.
 Assist in the formulation and solution of the equations of MTheory, by applying advanced mathematical tools and methods, and finding or inventing new ones.
 Assist in the interpretation and explanation of the physical meaning and implications of MTheory, by translating the abstract and complex concepts and entities into more intuitive and accessible terms, and providing analogies, examples, or visualizations.
 Assist in the determination and justification of the validity and necessity of MTheory, by comparing and contrasting MTheory with alternative or competing theories, and evaluating their strengths and weaknesses.
 Assist in the distinction and rejection of the false or incorrect aspects of MTheory, by applying rigorous logic and reasoning, and identifying or generating empirical evidence or logical contradiction that could refute or challenge the theory.
The Role of MTheory in AGI
Another possible connection between AGI and MTheory is that MTheory could play a role in the development and advancement of AGI, by providing some of the theoretical foundations and physical constraints for AGI. For example, MTheory could:
 Provide a quantum framework for AGI, by describing how AGI could exploit or manipulate quantum phenomena, such as superposition, entanglement, or uncertainty, to enhance its computation, communication, or cognition.
 Provide a relativistic framework for AGI, by describing how AGI could cope or adapt to relativistic phenomena, such as gravity, curvature, or time dilation, that could affect its perception, action, or coordination.
 Provide a unified framework for AGI, by describing how AGI could integrate or unify different types of knowledge, skills, and modalities, based on the common principle or entity that underlies all the fundamental forces of nature.
 Provide an elegant framework for AGI, by describing how AGI could achieve or exhibit simplicity, conciseness, and beauty in its representation, integration, generalization, and adaptation, based on the symmetries, patterns, or structures of nature.
The Compatibility of AGI and MTheory
The third and final aspect that we will consider is the compatibility of AGI and MTheory, that is, whether AGI and MTheory are consistent or contradictory, and what implications this has for the possibility of creating and understanding artificial intelligence with quantum gravity. There are two possible scenarios:

AGI and MTheory are compatible, meaning that they can coexist and cooperate, and that they do not conflict or contradict each other. This scenario implies that AGI and MTheory are both valid and necessary, and that they can complement and enhance each other. This scenario also implies that AGI and MTheory can share some of the features and challenges that we discussed above, such as quantum, relativistic, unified, and elegant features, and experimentation, mathematics, interpretation, uniqueness, and falsifiability challenges. This scenario could lead to the possibility of creating and understanding artificial intelligence with quantum gravity, by using MTheory as a guide and a constraint for AGI, and using AGI as a tool and a partner for MTheory.

AGI and MTheory are incompatible, meaning that they cannot coexist and cooperate, and that they do conflict or contradict each other. This scenario implies that AGI and MTheory are either invalid or unnecessary, and that they can undermine or exclude each other. This scenario also implies that AGI and MTheory have different or opposite features and challenges that we discussed above, such as classical, nonrelativistic, separate, and complex features, and reliability, autonomy, comprehensibility, creativity, and selfawareness challenges. This scenario could lead to the impossibility of creating and understanding artificial intelligence with quantum gravity, by rejecting MTheory as a guide and a constraint for AGI, or rejecting AGI as a tool and a partner for MTheory.
New York General Group